In the Developer Survey, in which 65,000 programmers participated in 2020, Python ranked 3rd in the most favorite programming languages category.
The Django framework, which is entirely written in Python, ranked 10th among popular web frameworks in 2020. In 2021, Django was ranked as the 9th most used web framework.
A coincidence? We do not think so!
Year after year, Python and the growing number of frameworks written in Python that improve more than just web development are gaining popularity.
According to a different Developer Ecosystem study conducted by JetBrains, Python is most often used for the following:
- Web development
- Data analysis
- Machine learning
Python, along with frameworks based on it, is also one of the most popular languages and tools that programmers want to learn and use in their work.
Is this yet another coincidence? Of course not!
In large, complex, and demanding (in terms of technology or security) projects, Python and web development are terms, if not synonymous, then certainly closely tied together.
It is impossible to think about web development without considering Python and its frameworks that significantly facilitate the creation of web applications.
It is, therefore, worth exploring the capabilities that frameworks offer. It is worthwhile to look at some popular frameworks written in Python. Why?
Because web development with their help is much faster, simpler, and more efficient, and guarantees better results both from the technological perspective and the business side related to the User Experience.
So there is nothing left to do but invite you to read our – pretty subjective – but useful review of the best Python frameworks!
As always, we wish you a pleasant reading!
What is Web Development?
When describing and getting acquainted with the capabilities of frameworks and other technologies used for web development, it is appropriate to start by defining the terms.
Web development is the creation of web applications for the following:
- Internet – a globally accessible public network
- Intranet – a non-public, private, and locally accessible network.
Web development covers a very different range of work, also in terms of complexity and business relevance related to User Experience.
Under this term are, on the one hand, simple showcase pages and blogs. On the other hand, we have web applications. Usually very complex in terms of technology and functionality, logic, and business objectives.
Web development is sometimes associated solely with programming work, writing code. Is this the correct approach? Well, it is rather pointless to try to resolve this dilemma. These are – in a sense – academic disputes that are unlikely to make much difference in the daily practice of a web development company.
The web development process uses a whole corpus of tools to make the future application work and look according to users' expectations. And that it is adequate in terms of the assumptions its designers and developers made.
The list of tools (regarding programming and design) used in web development includes:
- Django (framework written in Python)
- Flask, Japronto (microframeworks written in Python)
- Python (one of the most popular programming languages)
- Symfony, Laravel (frameworks written in PHP)
- Material UI, Bulma, Bootstrap (frameworks with ready-made UI components)
- Figma / Sketch / Zeplin (tools for collaboration between web design and web development teams)
- AWS (the largest cloud provider used to host web applications of any size)
In the list above, we have included the names of selected libraries and frameworks that make web application development and web development in general (in the front-end, back-end, Q&A, and DevOps layers) a much simpler process.
More efficient, rational, and convenient. Less error-prone, especially in terms of critical errors and security.
They are easy to maintain regarding quality, help keep the project in order with conventions and quality control tools, and easily submit to test automation.
A complete list would be much, much longer. At the same time, listing all the tools is not the point. It is just an illustration of the extent to which web development today depends (in a good sense) on tools that improve the work in web development companies.
Frameworks (front end, back end) play a special role in modern web development because they provide solutions and components that are tested and constantly improved.
Frameworks offer clear guidelines for developing applications, which reduce mistakes and eliminate the problem of reinventing the wheel.
Above all, frameworks, including those written in Python, eliminate the problem of creating a web application from scratch. As a result, development teams can deliver finished, high-quality software in a much faster timeframe.
Frameworks written in Python (or other languages) allow developers to quickly create web, mobile, IoT, and other applications without having to build from scratch fundamental operations and processes occurring in the application, such as working with a database or validating user input.
They support the majority of typical programming procedures, thus significantly reducing coding time. They also improve the code's clarity, conciseness, and simplicity, making debugging and maintenance easier. They also facilitate the better development of each layer of an application.
That said, it is worth remembering that there are two key layers within web development:
- Front-end web development
- Back-end web development
Front-end web development addresses the outer layer of a web application, those elements visible to its users (graphics, text, buttons, sliders, etc.) with which they can interact.
Tools supporting front-end web development most often enable us to more conveniently and efficiently, sometimes with the help of ready-made components, build the layout of a web application, design its interface and deliver the best UX to users.
Back-end web development handles the back-end layer of a web application, that is, the part that is not directly accessible to website users and not visible to them. At the same time, it is the heart and brain of the web application.
Back-end web development is responsible for the operation of a site, is used to collect, store, organize data, and is the logistical support of the application.
In short, back-end web development is in charge of making all the components of a web or mobile application work correctly and allows us to share data between devices and users.
The majority of front-end and back-end development work is currently done with the help of numerous libraries and frameworks, the main advantage of which is that the application is built in a way that resembles building a house out of ready-made modules and templates.
A vast open-source community ensures the availability, usefulness, up-to-dateness, and effectiveness of frameworks. They are the result of the experience and work of thousands of seasoned engineers from around the world.
The Python community has created a range of helpful frameworks that are constantly being developed, improved, and updated.
With their help, it is possible to solve increasingly complex and unusual technological and business problems in projects of any scale.
So there is nothing left to do but look at the most popular ones.
Python frameworks – a short introduction
In general, frameworks developed in Python can be divided into two categories:
- Full-Stack Frameworks
Full-stack frameworks allow us to create both layers of an application – front-end and back-end. The full technology stack makes it possible to develop any application.
Microframeworks have a little smaller applicability and more limited capabilities. They contain only sets of essential elements required to build a very simple web application.
Due to their lightweight nature, they operate much faster than full-stack frameworks. They are an ideal choice for developing high-load applications, i.e., applications used by thousands of users simultaneously.
We will not find more complex functionalities (such as validation of form fields, ORM, and templates) in them, but this does not mean they are unavailable.
Python has lived to see a large number of frameworks that are recommended for projects of various scales and needs (functional and business).
A shared feature of these tools is that they considerably simplify and speed up web development.
Frameworks written in Python are used to create a variety of web applications. They are often used to create, maintain and develop web applications in the financial, travel, and medical industries.
Python Framework – Django web framework
We have already written about the advantages and usefulness of Django in the articles "The integration of Stripe payments in Django," "Applications developed in Django," and "WordPress vs. Django. What to choose for a corporate website?"
Django is a web framework for perfectionists with deadlines. The official tagline advertising this open-source project fully captures the essence of this tool.
Django owes its reputation to the speed of application development and the smaller amount of code required to create it.
If we want to make seamlessly and quickly an MVP (Minimum Viable Product), a fully working application with only basic functions, it is worth using Django. This framework helps build applications that are efficient and easily scalable.
Django (full-stack framework) is recommended for developing complex and large web applications.
Web development, thanks to Django, is much more efficient in terms of time and the amount of necessary work.
Django's key features include the following:
- Very good documentation and maturity of the technology
- A large and engaged community that develops the framework and creates countless libraries
- Database version control and an ORM (Object-Relational Mapping) engine
- Support for authentication processes
- Template and view engine, URL caching, and routing
- Convenient panel for the administration of service data with the capability of modification (Django Admin)
- Scalability and speed
- High quality and security.
Python Framework – Pyramid web framework
The concise and catchy tagline of yet another framework written in Python also captures its characteristics well. The Start Small, Finish Big, Stay Finished Framework.
Almost all ambitious projects do not shine in terms of momentum and size; instead, they quickly turn into something great, into a project that, as it grows in scale, must be relevant to changing needs.
Is it prepared for unexpected success? Yes, if it is created with the help of Pyramid.
Pyramid was created for such projects. It was developed to meet different needs and guarantee solutions adequate to each stage of business development.
Pyramid is positioned as an alternative to Full-Stack and Microframeworks.
The first sometimes limits developers too much, while the latter places too much responsibility on them.
Both situations raise the risk of project failure. Pyramid being something in the middle guarantees that it is able to bring any project to completion.
Universalism is a characteristic that is often emphasized in descriptions and evaluations of Pyramid. This framework is recommended for developing complex applications and scaling smaller projects.
It is also appreciated for its flexibility. We can seamlessly swap out any component in Pyramid (e.g., template engine) for another. Pyramid enables the use of multiple components for the same application (e.g., different URL mapping methods).
Python Framework – TurboGears 2 web framework
The Web Framework that scales with you – concise and accurate. That is how another framework TurboGears 2, written in Python, self-promotes.
Although it is a framework that would have to be assigned to the Microframeworks category, it offers the ability to scale up to a full-stack framework.
The framework was developed as a response to the limitations of popular frameworks (Django) and its older version TurboGears 1.
Its latest version is supposed to permit fast development of data-driven web applications.
TurboGears 2 was designed and developed to solve complex performance problems.
TurboGears 2 supports tools such as SQLAlchemy, Genshi, WebOb, and Repoze, which provide high-performance mechanisms for accessing databases or fast templates.
TurboGears 2's key features include the following:
- A powerful ORM (Object-Relational Mapping) engine that supports many types of databases
- The ability to scale the framework to a full-stack solution
- Support for Horizontal Data Partitioning
- Support for multiple data transfer formats
- A designer-friendly template system
- Offering widgets to make it easier to build AJAX (browser-side and server-side) applications.
The best Python Microframeworks – Flask web framework
One drop at a time. The philosophy of minimalism that gave birth to this framework is perfectly reflected in its tagline. But this tendency toward minimalism is not surprising. Flask is one of the more popular Microframeworks written in Python.
Flask is equipped with only the necessary tools and mechanisms. Hence it is ideal for creating microservices offered in large web applications.
Among other things, in Flask, we will not find a database abstraction layer or the ability to verify forms. It is oriented toward configuration.
Web development with the help of Flask, where the lightweight, modular design and minimalist architecture support quick and straightforward adaptation of the environment to the needs of the project, is very convenient.
Flask is compatible with Google App Engine, among others, and is perfect for developing distributed web applications in the cloud. Basic functionalities, if necessary, can be extended using various libraries, such as Jinja2 or SQLAlchemy.
However, that is not all. Flask also provides:
- Fast and convenient handling of HTTP queries
- Support for headers, cookies, and user sessions
- Developer tools, such as a local server or debugger
- Ability to connect any ORM (Object-Relational Mapping)
- Unit test support.
The best Python Microframeworks – Falcon web framework
Web development is also about creating APIs (Application Programming Interfaces). By using another very popular Microframework written in Python for this purpose, we will be able to provide very powerful APIs in high-load applications.
Falcon is known for its stability and efficiency, which has led it to be used by LinkedIn and PayPal, among others.
Falcon's key features include the following:
- Idiomatic responses to HTTP errors
- Native support of asyncio
- ASGI, WSGI, and WebSocket support
- CPython 3.5+ and PyPy 3.5+ support
- Simple handling of exceptions
- Simple API modeling
- The optimized, expandable code base
- Cython support.
The best Python Microframeworks – Japronto web framework
Japronto is another Microframework that supports web development and is recommended for creating APIs and microservices.
Japronto, in particular, is recommended for creating microservices that have to handle very high loads.
It is recommended wherever extensive frameworks cannot solve the problem as effectively. A lot of excitement surrounded Japronto when it was found to be able to handle a million queries per second.
Japronto is appreciated for its speed, lightness, and scalability.
Japronto's key features and advantages include the following:
- Full support for HTTP pipelining
- Synchronous and asynchronous view support
- Simple routing.
The best Python Frameworks for Web Development. Summary
- Python and Python frameworks that streamline web development are gaining popularity year after year.
- Python ranks higher and higher in popularity every year in various studies regarding developers' programming language preferences.
- Web development and Python frameworks are almost synonymous.
- Frameworks significantly simplify and speed up the building of web applications.
- Web development with their help is much faster, simpler, more efficient, and guarantees better results. Both from the technological perspective and the business side related to the User Experience.
- Web development is the creation of web applications for the Internet and intranet.
- It covers a very different range of work in terms of complexity and business relevance related to User Experience.
- The web development process uses a whole corpus of tools.
- Frameworks (front end, back end) provide solutions and components that are tested and constantly improved.
- Frameworks provide clear guidelines for developing applications, which reduces mistakes and eliminates the problem of reinventing the wheel.
- Python frameworks support the majority of typical programming procedures, thus significantly reducing coding time. They also improve the code's clarity, conciseness, and simplicity and make it easier to debug and maintain.
- Front-end web development addresses the outer layer of a web application, those elements visible to its users with which they can interact.
- Back-end web development handles the back-end layer of a web application, that is, the part that is not directly accessible to website users and not visible to them.
- Frameworks developed in Python can be divided into Full-Stack Frameworks and Microframeworks.
- Full-stack frameworks allow us to create both layers of an application – front-end and back-end. The full technology stack makes it possible to create any application.
- Microframeworks contain only sets of essential elements required to build a very simple web application.
- Frameworks written in Python are very often used to create, maintain and develop web applications in the financial, travel, and medical industries.
- Django (full-stack framework) is recommended for developing MVPs and business applications.
- Pyramid is positioned as an alternative to Full-Stack and Microframeworks.
- TurboGears 2 was designed and developed to solve complex performance problems.
- Flask is ideal for creating microservices offered in large web applications.
- Falcon has the advantage of being able to create projects that require special stability and efficiency.
- Japronto is recommended for creating APIs and microservices. In particular, it is recommended for creating microservices that have to handle very high loads. It is capable of handling millions of queries per second.